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  • br Introduction Active oxygen radicals in the human body

    2024-06-24


    Introduction Active oxygen radicals in the human body have a strong effect of inducing lipid peroxidation, which in turn induces oxidative imbalance and causes various diseases. Natural polysaccharides are substances with certain antioxidant activity. They are used as antioxidants and have advantages such as being non-toxic and having good biocompatibility compared with drugs by chemical synthesis [1]. Polysaccharides are widely found in nature and are mainly divided into three categories, namely plant polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharide has the effect of enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity, scavenging free radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting biofilm, antioxidation and anti-aging. However, studies on the antioxidant activity and mechanism of polysaccharides are still at an exploratory stage [2,3]. The cuaurbit is a gourd-like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds). It generally contains large amounts of polysaccharide, amino acid, and vitamins such as B1, B2, and C, as well as several active ingredients, including protein and carotenoid [4]. Cuaurbit polysaccharide is a kind of nonspecific immunopotentiator. It can improve the immune function and promote the production of cytokine. By activating pathway of complement and the other pathways, the cuaurbit polysaccharide plays a variety of adjusting function to immune system [5]. Based on the important biological functions of cuaurbit polysaccharide, its extraction and deproteinization have been studied. The aim of the present work is to provide an appropriate approach to obtain more pure cuaurbit polysaccharide for its further tests in vivo and in vitro experiments. Three methods of deproteinization were investigated, including the trichloroacetic Walrycin B (TCA) method, NaCl method, and CaCl2 method. Moreover, The purity, molecular weight, sugar content, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of cuaurbit polysaccharide were analyzed, respectively.
    Materials and methods
    Results and discussion
    Conclusions The cuaurbit polysaccharide was extracted by the hot water extraction method. It indicated that the TCA method exhibited the lowest percentage of deproteinization, and a little higher percentage of polysaccharide loss than the other two methods. The CaCl2 method excelled NaCl method in deproteinization. So, the CaCl2 method had good ability to deproteinization for cuaurbit polysaccharide. It proved that the cuaurbit polysaccharide was composed of glucose, glucuronic acid, galactose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. Moreover, cuaurbit polysaccharide on the superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals had the good scavenging effect. So, it should be a potential antioxidant.
    Acknowledgements The Project Sponsored by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry (No. 2015-1098). The work was also supported by Chongqing Key Research Project of Basic Science & Frontier Technology (No. cstc2017jcyjBX0012), Foundation Project of Chongqing Normal University (No. 14XYY020), Chongqing General Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (No. cstc2015jcyjA10054), and Chongqing Normal University1 Postgraduate's Research and Innovation Project (No. YKC17004), China.
    Introduction Pyometra is considered as one of the most important feline reproductive diseases [1,2]. It is characterized by a suppurative inflammatory process in the endometrium and accumulation of purulent content in the uterine lumen [3,4]. It should be considered an emergency due to the risk of development of severe and life-threatening complications, including septicemia, endotoxemia, azotemia, uterine rupture, peritonitis and shock [1,[5], [6], [7]]. Ovariohysterectomy is considered the treatment of choice in most cases [4,8]. Most queens recover successfully after surgery; however pre-, intra- and post-operative complications may develop [9,10], indicating the necessity of new biomarkers for disease evaluation and treatment monitoring.